Rainwater system proposal for sports hall in North Kerry

Example of how an assessment done under BS 8515:2009 guidelines is carried out

Key issues considered: –

Water usage;

  • Total demand for potable water ( for drinking, catering and washing)
  • Total demand for non-potable water (for flushing toilets laundry etc.)
  • Number of users and their gender
  • Possible peak demand situations during functions and sporting events etc.
  • Physical and structural considerations;

  • Roof layout, area and suitability of material for rainwater capture
  • Location (for calculating average rainfall availability)
  • Tank sizes and possible locations including structural problems arising from either weight or bulk and access
  • Plumbing, for both harvesting from roof and supply to point of use
  • Costs, both current (from bills or metre readings) and proposed
  • Safety;

  • Identify risks in both existing water system and any that may arise from any proposed alterations
  • A survey of the building was then carried out and the layout, dimensions and current plumbing was recorded.
    The roof areas were examined to assess their suitability and it was found that the largest part of the roof was constructed from corrugated asbestos and therefore not suited for rainwater harvesting.
    The newest part of the building uses artificial slates and offered the best source of clean rainwater, the remainder of the roof being asphalt and stone covered flat concrete construction at a lower level.

    Survey of installed plumbing:

    Ground floor;

  • 1 kitchen with sink and dishwasher
  • 1 hand basin
  • 1 disabled toilet and hand basin
  • 1 latrine
  • 1 men’s toilet with hand basin
  • 3 ladies’ toilets with 3 hand basins
  • First floor;

  • 1 kitchen with sink and dishwasher
  • 1 washing machine
  • 4 showers
  • 4 hand basins
  • 2 men’s toilets
  • 2 ladies’ toilets
  • 1 hot water tank supplying all hot taps and showers
  • Attic;

  • 2 storage tanks for cold water (these provide a reserve to prevent shower usage from exceeding mains supply and feed booster pump located in the hot press)
  • In summary,

    On the ground floor all potable requirements are fed directly from the mains.

    3 ladies’, 1 men’s, 1 disabled toilet and 1 latrine could use non potable water and are currently fed from a 1000 litre tank located on the flat roof above the toilet area.

    On the first floor all potable requirements are fed from the booster pump system except the kitchen tap which is fed from the mains.

    2 ladies’, 2 men’s toilets and 1 washing machine could use non potable water, the connections to these are accessible from the attic and require minimal plumbing to separate them from the potable system.

    It was noted that the storage tanks in the attic could be a potential source of Legionella and should be insulated to prevent warming above 20 degrees, the incoming cold water supply should maintain a safe temperature if insulated but these tanks should be drained if left unused for any long periods.

    Likewise the tank on the roof above the toilets is unshielded from the sun and poses similar risks, if this tank is to be retained then similar measures should be considered.

    No obvious leaks or wastage issues were noted at this time.,p>

    Water usage:-

    Potential peak demand; This was calculated using the following assumptions;

  • All cisterns are 9 litre per flush except the latrine which uses 2 ½ litres per flush
  • Ladies’ toilets are flushed twice as often as men’s at busy times
  • Washing machines use 8.17 litres per kilo washed
  • Each toilet would flush on average 4 times per day outside of peak period
  • The disabled toilet would be considered a ladies’ during peak use
  • Therefore:- for a peak period of 3 hours

  • 4 men’s WC’s flushing 6 times per hour ( 4 x 6 ) x 3(hrs) x 9 litres = 648 litres
  • 5 ladies’ WC’s flushing 12 times per hour ( 5 x 12 )x 3(hrs)x 9 litres = 1620 litres
  • 1 urinal flushing 3 times per hour ( 1 x 3 ) x 3(hrs) x 2 ½ litres = 22 ½ litres
  • A = 2290 ½ litres

    For the other 21 hours

  • 9 WC’s flushing a total of 4 times 9 x 4 x 9 litres = 324 litres
  • 1 urinal flushing 3 times per hour ( 1 x 3 ) x 21 (hrs) x 2 ½ litres = 157 ½ litres
  • 1 washing machine @ 12 kgs/day 12 x 8.17 litres = 98 litres
  • B = 579 ½ litres

    For 24 hour period A + B = 2870 litres

    Actual usage from invoice; last 3 month period 56000 litres or approx 615 litres / 24 hrs

    This figure is expected to vary considerably from season to season but no other bills were available.

    Currently this water costs 1.1 cents / litre plus standing charges so potentially a saving of almost 10 cents per flush could be achieved by switching to rainwater.

    It should be noted that considerable reductions in the volume of water required for toilet flushing could be achieved by simply reducing the internal volume of the cisterns and switching off the latrine flushes when the building is unoccupied.

    Calculating tank sizes: Using the intermediate approach from BS 8515:2009

    From formulae it is shown that the lesser of either 5% of the available annual rainfall

    OR

    5% of the proposed or actual annual demand is sufficient for rainwater storage, therefore:-

    Using;

    Annual yield =Collecting area x yield coefficient x depth of annual rainfall x hydraulic filter efficiency x (5%)

    Area (from survey) = 140 m2

    Annual rainfall (from Met Eirann, Valentia station) =1430mm/year

    Yield coefficient (for a sloping slate roof) = .7

    Filter hydraulic efficiency (worst acceptable) = .9

    Gives: Annual Yield = 140 x 1430 x .7 x .9 = 126126 litres / year

    X 0.05

    =6306

    From annual available rainfall tank should be approx 6306 litres

    Using;Max demand as shown by previous workings out;

    Peak demand / 24hr period= 2870 litres x 18 (to give 5% of annual demand)= 51660 litres

    So the lower figure is used,

    Tank size required is approx 6306 litres

    Proposed rainwater harvesting solution

    The section of artificial slate roof over the newer part of the building can be used to provide the rainwater required with minimal alteration.

    The guttering to this roof will need to be altered by changing the direction of fall toward the flat roof and the existing down pipes removed or fitted with diverters to allow for excess conditions.

    Tanks to accommodate at least 6000 litres of rainwater are to be fitted on top of the flat roof near the higher part of the building where acceptable supporting walls will provide the necessary load bearing.

    A booster pump will be mounted in a housing adjacent to these tanks and a float switch controlled connection will be made to the existing water supply to cater for times of low rainfall. This pump will serve the connections on the first floor via a pipe to the attic taken through the soffit near the tanks.

    Water will be provided to the ground floor toilets via a connection to the existing gravity fed plumbing from the current roof tank, the feed from this being diverted to the float switch controlled top up facility on the new tanks.

    The tanks will be on the North face of the upper part of the building which should provide good shade and reduce the risk of unwanted algae or bacterial growth.

    Existing pipework and electrical connections will be utilised to save on cost and disturbance where possible and no structural alterations are required to the building.

    It is proposed that three tanks should be used, two 2500 litre circular tanks and one 1450 litre circular tank.

    The two larger tanks would sit close to the corner where the roof being harvested meets the older building. This allows for the filter unit to be fed directly from the gutter connections and makes for very short pipework. The booster pump would sit next to these and connect to the first floor plumbing.

    The third, smaller tank would replace the existing roof tank and be connected to the others via a one inch insulated pipe.

    Connections to the ground floor would come from this tank and the top up facility would be installed at this point also.

    schematic of proposed rainwater harvesting solutionclick on picture for full size image

    Cost

  • Two 2500 litre tanks @ €685.00 ..€1370
  • One 1450 litre tank @ €382.00 …..€382
  • One booster pump and housing …€472
  • Gutter parts and diverters etc. ……€340
  • Plumbing, pipe and fittings ………..€370
  • Electrical parts inc float switch etc €108
  • Filter assembly …………………….€164
  • Total Materials €3206

    Total Labour €1175

    TOTAL €4381

    Subject to V.A.T and any increase in material costs

    These proposed costs are accurate at the time of writing and are based on items currently available in the region.

    Although there are no obvious problems relating to planning it would be wise to check with the local authority before proceeding with any works of this kind.

    The total outlay may seem prohibitive but the savings in direct charges for water may be more significant with the proposed increases in water rates.

    The particular uses of this building mean that a very large proportion of the water demand need not be potable making this an attractive candidate for rainwater harvesting.

    The reduced impact on the carbon footprint and the ability to ‘future-proof’ this building with respect to new ‘green’ legislation regarding water usage combined with actual financial savings still make this a choice worth considering.

    Although some issues have been addressed in this survey it must be noted that a full risk assessment should be carried out on the whole project and that measures should be implemented to correct known problems whether or not the rainwater harvesting scheme is pursued.

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